Zizania aquatica, Gramineae
The seed of an aquatic plant originally from North America, specifically the Great Lakes region. Highly sought after, wild rice is expensive. Grains of wild rice acquire their blackish color after being hulled, cleaned and dried. They have a fairly strong, nutty flavor and a crunchy texture.
Wash the wild rice to remove any foreign matter. If the grains have not been hulled already, they can be spread on a cookie sheet and dried for 2-3 hr in a 200°F (95°C) oven, stirring them occasionally, or leave them 2-3 days in a warm place. They can also be dried in a pan, stirring continuously. Hull them by beating or rubbing the grains; the light husk will separate from the grain. Dry these again for 1 hr in the oven at 250°F (120°C).
Wild rice accompanies poultry, seafood and game. It is served by itself or mixed with other types of rice. Cooked wild rice is used in stuffings and crepes. It works well with mushrooms, vegetables, fruit and nuts. It can be popped like corn or milled into flour.
Boiled in water or stock: soak wild rice for several hours or quick-soak for 1 hr. In a pot, put 4 parts of water for 1 part of rice and bring to a boil; add the rice then let it boil for 5 min; remove from the heat. Cover and leave to soak for 1 hr. Drain. Put the pot back on the heat, add 3 times its volume in water (or less if a drier rice is desired), add 1/2 teaspoon of salt and bring to a boil, reduce the heat and simmer until tender (about 20 min). ?
Avoid overcooking wild rice. ?
The cooking time for unsoaked grains is ?about 40 min (cook the rice in 3 times its volume of water).
protein 4 g
fat 0.3 g
carbohydrates 21.3 g
per 3.5 oz/100 g
Good source: zinc.?
Contains: magnesium, folic acid, niacin, potassium, vitamin B6, phosphorus, copper and riboflavin.?
Wild rice is highly nutritious. It contains a greater quantity and better quality of proteins than regular rice, as it contains more lysine.
Hordeum vulgare, Gramineae
A plant probably originally from the mountainous regions of Ethiopia and Southeast Asia. Barley is not used very much for human consumption in western countries. In Asia, northern Africa and the Middle East, it is used as a flour or as grains to make porridge. In industrialized countries, barley is mainly used as cattle feed, in bread making, brewing (beer) and distilling (whiskey). The barley grain is oval-shaped and a milky-white color; it can also be black or purple. It must have its outer husk removed to be edible. ?
Hulled barley is barley that has simply had its outer husk removed, keeping virtually all of its bran. This is the most nourishing grain, as it has lost very few nutrients.?
Scotch or pot barley has undergone three processes of polishing by abrasion. The grain loses various nutrients, especially vitamins and minerals, as well as virtually all of its bran.?
Pearl barley has been subjected to five or six abrasions and then standardized. The grain loses its germ as well as a certain amount of vitamins, minerals, fiber, fat and protein.?
Barley flakes are produced and used in the same way as rolled oats.?
Barley flour can be more or less refined. Whole grain barley flour has a nutty flavor. It is darker than whole-grain wheat flour.?
Some varieties of barley are the primary material for making malt, which is mostly used to make beer and whiskey. To obtain malt, the barley grains are sprouted, dried, roasted, then ground. The longer the malt is roasted, the
darker the resulting beer will be.
Barley is often added to soups and stews. It is used in the same way as other cereals and grains. It is cooked as is or at the same time as rice (in the case of pearl barley) or is added to pâtés, croquettes, puddings and desserts. The slightly rubbery texture of barley adds an unusual touch to mixed salads. Barley can be used in the manufacture of miso (p. 459).?
Barley flour thickens soups and sauces; it adds a slightly sweet taste to foods. It is used in particular in cookies, bread, crepes and cakes. It contains no gluten, so it must be combined with wheat flour in order for it to rise.?
When roasted and ground, barley provides the malt that is used as a coffee substitute and is also used to enrich certain foods. It is made into malt syrup, which flavors milkshakes and some industrially made cakes. Malted barley cereals are also available.
Hulled barley cooks in about 1 hr over a low heat; use 3-4 cups (750 ml-1 l) of liquid for 1 cup (250 ml) of grains. It is best to soak barley for several hours before cooking (use the same liquid to cook the barley), in the case of hulled barley and Scotch barley only. If desired, drain the barley, then roast it before cooking. Pearl barley requires about 30 min cooking time and does not need to be soaked.
cooked pearl barley
protein 2.3 g
fat 0.4 g
carbohydrates 28.2 g
fiber 6.5 g
per 3.5 oz/100 g
Cooked pearl barley?
Contains: niacin, iron, zinc, magnesium, potassium, folic acid, vitamin B6, thiamine, copper and phosphorus.?
Barley is an excellent source of soluble fiber, and more generally a rich source of fiber.?
Properties: fortifying, emollient, regenerating, beneficial for the respiratory system and antidiarrheal. Barley tea has been used for a very long time to relieve coughs.
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oats Avena sativa, Gramineae
A cereal grain probably originally from Asia. There are several varieties of oats, divided into winter oats and summer oats. Depending on the variety, the grains can be white, gray-yellow, red or black, and covered in numerous hairs. ?
Irish oats are made from hulled and roasted grains, passed between steel blades, then cut into thin slices. ?The finer they are cut, the more quickly they cook. Add 2-3 parts water to 1 part oats.?
Traditional rolled oats are made from hulled grains that are steamed and rolled into flat flakes. For cooking, 2-3 parts water are used to 1 part oats and they are cooked for 10-25 min.?
Quick-cooking rolled oats are simply traditional rolled oats cut into smaller pieces to reduce the cooking time. The nutritional value of quick-cooking oats is the same as traditional rolled oats, but they have less flavor. The quicker cooking process takes 3-5 min for 21/2 parts liquid to 1 part oats.?
Instant porridge oats are made from grains that are partly boiled, dried, then rolled very thinly. The porridge is ready to eat with the addition of boiling water. The nutritional value of this product is similar to quick-cooking oats. Several instant porridge products are flavored and sold as breakfast cereals. The porridge almost always contains added salt and sugar, and often contains food additives.?
Oat bran is found in the outer layers of the grain beneath the inedible husk. It is sold as a separate product, but it can also be present in rolled oats and Irish oats. It can be cooked like porridge or added to other foods in the same way as wheat germ.?
Oat flour contains no gluten and does not rise when cooked. It must be combined with wheat flour in order to make bread and other foods that rise.
Porridge is probably the most well-known use of oats. Oats are also used in granolas, mueslis, muffins, cookies, flatbreads, crepes and bread; in this case, it must be mixed with wheat flour in the proportions of about 4 cups (1 l) for 1 cup (250 ml) of oats. Oats are used to thicken soups, meat loaves, pâtés and puddings and to make date squares, fruit crumbles, cakes, jellies, beers and drinks.
uncooked oat bran dry porridge
protein 5.4 g 4.3 g
fat 2.2 g 1.7 g
carbohydrates 20.5 g 18.1 g
fiber 4.9 g 2.8 g
calories 76 104
per 1 oz/30 g
Oats retain almost all of their nutrients after being hulled, as the bran and the germ cling to the kernel. They are very nourishing. They contain proteins of good nutritional value.?
Good source: magnesium and thiamine.?
Contains: phosphorus, potassium, iron, pantothenic acid and copper.?
Porridge is a source of fiber.?
Uncooked oat bran?
Excellent source: magnesium, thiamine and phosphorus.?
Good source: potassium.?
Contains: iron, zinc, folic acid, pantothenic acid and copper.?
Properties: diuretic. The soluble fiber content of oats helps lower cholesterol levels. Its auxin (a growth hormone)